A pipeline in arctic area
The principle is simple but the implementation is complex, because polar areas are extreme areas.
We must develop totally new techniques for all. Nothing that is used elsewhere can function en polar areas.
Pipelines are deeply buried because of polar weather conditions which are extreme.
A deep trench is dug in ice, which serves as :
- Mechanical protection against extreme wind which could damage pipelines.
- Mechanical protection against accumulations of snow which is carried by the wind.
- Mechanical protection against percussion risks by polar expeditions vehicles.
- Thermic protection against extreme wind which further cools by convection.
- Thermic protection against temperature peaks even colder.
Under a thick layer of ice, temperature is constant.
A constant temperature avoid contractions and thermic dilatations of pipelines and so mechanical strains.
This avoids the most extreme cold temperatures, requiring to heat more the water.
One of the problems that may occur is the water freezing in the pipeline.
This would block the pipeline and might burst it.
That is why, water is heated before sending in the pipeline.
Water is heated regularly in pipeline according to the needs, to always be at least a few degrees above zero Celsius degree.
This heating is done using wind turbines.
Pipelines must be very well thermally insulated.
Polar areas are extremely cold, therefore if pipelines's insulation is not very good, then water will freeze in pipelines and will block it.